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Bacteria in the gut may alter aging process, study finds

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Tissue sections from the gut of each young and old mice that obtained microbiota transplants, with proliferating intestinal cells in inexperienced. Credit: P. Kundu et al., Science Translational Medicine (2019)

An worldwide analysis workforce led by Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) has discovered that microorganisms dwelling in the gut may alter the aging course of, which might result in the growth of food-based therapy to gradual it down.

All dwelling organisms, together with human beings, coexist with a myriad of microbial species dwelling in and on them, and analysis performed over the final 20 years has established their vital function in nutrition, physiology, metabolism and habits.

Using mice, the workforce led by Professor Sven Pettersson from the NTU Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, transplanted gut microbes from outdated mice (24 months outdated) into younger, germ-free mice (six weeks outdated). After eight weeks, the younger mice had elevated intestinal progress and manufacturing of neurons in the mind, referred to as neurogenesis.

The workforce confirmed that the elevated neurogenesis was resulting from an enrichment of gut microbes that produce a particular quick chain fatty acid, known as butyrate.

Butyrate is produced via microbial fermentation of dietary fibers in the decrease intestinal tract and stimulates manufacturing of a pro-longevity hormone known as FGF21, which performs an vital function in regulating the physique’s vitality and metabolism. As we age, butyrate manufacturing is lowered.

The researchers then confirmed that giving butyrate by itself to the younger germ-free mice had the identical grownup neurogenesis results.

The study was revealed in Science Translational Medicine yesterday (13 November), and was undertaken by researchers from Singapore, UK, and Australia.

“We’ve found that microbes collected from an old mouse have the capacity to support neural growth in a younger mouse,” mentioned Professor Pettersson. “This is a surprising and very interesting observation, especially since we can mimic the neuro-stimulatory effect by using butyrate alone.”

“These results will lead us to explore whether butyrate might support repair and rebuilding in situations like stroke, spinal damage and to attenuate accelerated aging and cognitive decline.”

How gut microbes influence the digestive system

The workforce additionally explored the results of gut microbe transplants from outdated to younger mice on the capabilities of the digestive system.

With age, the viability of small intestinal cells is lowered, and that is related to lowered mucus manufacturing that make intestinal cells extra weak to wreck and cell dying.

However, the addition of butyrate helps to higher regulate the intestinal barrier operate and scale back the danger of irritation.

The workforce discovered that mice receiving microbes from the outdated donor gained will increase in size and width of the intestinal villi—the wall of the small gut. In addition, each the small gut and colon have been longer in the outdated mice than the younger germ-free mice.

The discovery reveals that gut microbes can compensate and assist an aging physique via constructive stimulation.

This factors to a brand new potential technique for tackling the adverse results of aging by imitating the enrichment and activation of butyrate.

“We can conceive of future human studies where we would test the ability of food products with butyrate to support healthy aging and adult neurogenesis,” mentioned Professor Pettersson.

“In Singapore, with its strong food culture, exploring the use of food to ‘heal’ ourselves, would be an intriguing next step, and the results could be important in Singapore’s quest to support healthy aging for their silver generation.”

Group chief Dr. Dario Riccardo Valenzano at the Max Planck Institute for Biology of aging in Germany, who was not concerned in the study, mentioned the discovery is a milestone in analysis on microbiome.

“These results are exciting and raise several new open questions for both biology of aging and microbiome research, including whether there is an active acquisition of butyrate producing microbes during mice life and whether extreme aging leads to a loss of this fundamental microbial community, which may be eventually responsible for dysbiosis and age-related dysfunctions,” he added.

Professor Brian Kennedy, director of the Centre for Healthy aging at the National University of Singapore, who supplied an unbiased view, mentioned, “It is intriguing that the microbiome of an aged animal can promote youthful phenotypes in a young recipient. This suggests that the microbiota with aging have been modified to compensate for the accumulating deficits of the host and leads to the question of whether the microbiome from a young animal would have greater or less effects on a young host. The findings move forward our understanding of the relationship between the microbiome and its host during aging and set the stage for the development of microbiome-related interventions to promote healthy longevity.”

The study builds on Professor Pettersson’s earlier research on how transplantation of gut microbes from healthy mice can restore muscle progress and performance in germ-free mice with muscle atrophy, which is the loss of skeletal muscle mass.

Link between gut microbes and muscle progress suggests future method to sort out muscle loss

More data:
P. Kundu el al., “Neurogenesis and prolongevity signaling in young germ-free mice transplanted with the gut microbiota of old mice,” Science Translational Medicine (2019). stm.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/ … scitranslmed.aau4760

Provided by
Nanyang Technological University

Bacteria in the gut may alter aging course of, study finds (2019, November 14)
retrieved 16 November 2019
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-11-bacteria-gut-aging.html

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