The previous 12 months has been marked by uncertainty. Since the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic final March, and at the same time as we’ve realized extra concerning the nature of the novel coronavirus, our evolving understanding has confirmed how a lot we merely don’t know. Will we get sick? Will we lose our jobs? What will our new regular appear like, and when can we anticipate it to arrive?
Humans don’t like not realizing. In reality, our brains are wired to crave certainty, explains neurologist Robert Burton, MD, creator of On Being Certain: Believing You Are Right Even When You’re Not.
That’s as a result of feeling certain about one thing triggers the discharge of the neuro-transmitter dopamine, which stimulates the mind’s reward pathways — and leaves you wanting extra.
“To get a sense of the pleasure involved, imagine having an ‘aha’ moment. It’s a feeling of great satisfaction at having arrived at absolute knowledge or certainty,” he explains. “Conversely, not knowing and being left deprived of the dopamine surge gives one a profound sense of disquiet.”
That sense of disquiet has been linked to anxiousness and depression. Depending on the scope of the unknown, it will probably additionally stoke extra basic emotions of worry, hypervigilance, and paranoia.
For some, these feelings might incite high-risk behaviors: A June 2020 survey performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 39 p.c of respondents had misused family disinfectants — washing food with bleach, making use of disinfectants to naked pores and skin, deliberately ingesting cleansing merchandise — to keep away from contracting COVID-19.
Others might grasp for any sense of data or management as a response to uncertainty, even when the data they search is fake. This is one motive why conspiracy theories have a tendency to surge in instances of disaster: They provide the phantasm of a easy reply to a fancy or horrifying query.
In April 2020, a Pew Research Center research discovered that 23 p.c of American adults surveyed believed the coronavirus was manufactured in a lab, regardless of proof to the opposite. Other conspiracy theories — that the coronavirus is unfold by way of 5G cell networks, that the demise toll has been exaggerated or inflated for political functions — have been additionally rampant on-line within the early months of the pandemic.
“Uncertainty is the only certainty there is,” mathematician John Allen Paulos has mentioned, “and knowing how to live with insecurity is the only security.”
It’s true that we live in particularly unsure instances, however even when we ultimately eradicate the novel coronavirus, there isn’t any eradicating uncertainty. The greatest means ahead is perhaps studying to embrace it.
Facing the Unknown
It’s not straightforward to settle for our personal lack of information, not to mention really admit it — particularly in divisive instances. But the reality is that almost all of us know significantly lower than we expect we do, in accordance to cognitive scientist Philip Fernbach, PhD, coauthor of The Knowledge Illusion: Why We Never Think Alone.
“Most of the time, we don’t have enough information in our own heads to justify what we believe,” he explains. “We live under this illusion that we’ve analyzed a particular issue, but usually that ‘knowledge’ is just sound bites of other people’s opinions, or something we read in an article three months ago that we only kind of remember.”
Burton agrees, noting that an phantasm of data can lead to overconfidence in our personal beliefs. “What others tweet becomes part of what you think, and so your mind becomes a group effort,” he explains. “As a consequence, an initially malleable position gradually gels into an absolutist stance based on reinforcement from the crowd.”
But it’s probably that any place we take additionally incorporates hidden layers of dramatic complexity of which we’re unaware. That may be difficult to admit, says meditation instructor Sharon Salzberg, creator of Real Change. Facing that reality, nonetheless, will also be liberating.
“Everyone says we’re afraid of the unknown, however I’m most afraid after I suppose I do know,” Salzberg says. “It’s largely the stories I tell myself that spark the greatest anxiety. But if I remind myself that I don’t know, space opens up. A sense of possibility can thrive when there’s more space, more admission of the unknown.”
Working Toward Truth
There’s a distinction between admitting what we don’t know and deciding that reality is unattainable. In one situation, we strategy a problem with fundamental literacy, an open thoughts, and willingness to be taught. In the opposite, we throw up our arms and start to mistrust the whole lot, together with details, experience, and scientific consensus.
We can work with our personal ignorance by training what Fernbach calls “intellectual humility” — a midpoint between conceitedness and diffidence. This entails drawing on the information of others to increase our personal understanding, whereas remaining humble sufficient to skirt the absolutist stances Burton cautions towards.
“The secret to humanity’s ability to accomplish amazing things is really our ability to share knowledge in our communities,” Fernbach explains. “Individuals don’t know very much, but as a whole, our community knows a lot.”
This is one motive why it’s essential to look to consultants in instances of uncertainty, moderately than attempt to adjudicate the reality by ourselves or inside a group of others who don’t know rather more than we do. While experience shouldn’t be infallible, Fernbach concedes, it’s a lynchpin in our information group.
It’s additionally underneath menace, as international-affairs specialist Tom Nichols, PhD, outlines in The Death of Expertise. “This is new in American culture,” he writes, “and it represents the aggressive replacement of expert views or established knowledge with the insistence that every opinion on any matter is as good as any other.”
Relying on consultants is an efficient means to address uncertainty, says Fernbach — so long as you suppose critically about the place you’re getting your data. “We as individuals probably don’t know the facts inside and out,” he explains. “So we need to be careful about what sources we’re relying on, and to think more deliberatively about whether they’ve done a careful analysis.”
Practicing mental humility is step one in acknowledging uncertainty. The problem is to sit with that uncertainty, even because the uncomfortable feeling of not realizing might tempt us to deny or resist it.
“The further we move from the reality of our experience, the more we make things up to prop up our delusions,” Salzberg explains. “We might insist on control, for example, but that doesn’t mean the volume of our insistence is going to make it happen. Happiness comes from being in alignment with the truth.”
Though uncertainty would possibly really feel unsettling within the second, Salzberg believes that it’s additionally what permits us to stay open to life’s classes. “It’s powerful to feel oneself on a path of discovery rather than adopting a stance of certainty, which closes us down,” she says.
In time, studying to keep calm and open within the face of uncertainty also can assist ease our worry of the unknown, as famend Buddhist instructor Pema Chödrön explores in Comfortable With Uncertainty. “To the extent that we stop struggling against uncertainty and ambiguity, to that extent we dissolve our fear,” she writes. “Total fearlessness is full enlightenment — wholehearted, open-minded interaction with our world.”
This article initially appeared in Experience Life, Life Time’s whole-life health and fitness journal.